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郑方贤:教育的宽度与考试的精度
作者: | 发布时间:2018-06-19 | 来源:华东青少年教育研究与发展中心 | 点击数:3

人是有生命的个体,其特殊性独一无二,这也决定了伴随人成长的教育应表现出强烈的个性化特征。而学校教育提供我们统一的课程与教学,并给予统一的测试以检验教与学的成效,其中广泛进行测量与比较的往往是学科知识,除了它在升学、求职中的重要作用外,也是因为学科知识具有标准化特点,便于开展统一的教学和测量。


对于现代社会愈加重视的身体素质、实践能力和情感价值观的培养,即使学校施以统一标准的教育,似乎也很难达成理想的效果,当然更不可能通过纸笔检测其培养成效,这些方面基本依赖于学生的个性及其培养的长期性,我们通常也都会将成与否的原因归结为其天性如此或与其父母相像的理由。


所以,真正的教育必须面对每个不同的个体,结合基础教育的特点,更是应该主张教育的宽度而不是教育的高度或统一性。

 

 


如今的人们要完成从自然人到社会人的转变,学校教育是必不可少的载体。学校教育把培养内容按照既有的学科领域加以划分,并通过制定课程标准、考试大纲,由教师按照统一的教材和方法不断向全体学生重复教学与考试的过程,以促使学生达成学习与掌握的目的,这种模式极大地提高了知识传授的效率,也与大机器生产特征高度吻合,其标准化与精确度毋容置疑。


诸如高考、中考就是典型的例子。这些统一考试通过组织同一内容的测试,按照测试分数决定部分学生具有接受更高阶段教育的资格,看似公平其实不然,或许两个考生的测试分数只差一分或几分,就接受更高阶段的教育而言并无区别,但由于录取线的划定可能造成两者截然不同的成长轨迹;又由于统一考试主要是围绕目前阶段所受教育内容的测试,选拔出的学生是目前阶段学习表现优秀的,但并不代表他们接受更高阶段的教育也会成功。


所以统一考试制度尽管很好地满足了社会对公平性的要求,但选拔的科学性还值得商榷,当然这里所指的科学性也还必须与国家经济社会发展阶段与社会文明程度相适应。



基于测量理论与技术的考试设计,一般都具有完善的质量保障,通常越是利害性高的考试,其质量保障的程度也越高,但是任何测试评价都自然存在内容、形式、对象等方面的个体差异,尤其是受到测试效应时间的约束,所以对其使用的有效性必须加以限制。


近日,有小升初学生家长抱怨,初中学校拒绝的理由是他孩子小学某门课程的成绩不佳,以后会跟不上等等,如果真的是把小学生过程性学习评价的信息作为将来升学的依据,那显然是违背教育规律的。



在个体成长的过程中,标准化的学校教育并不是必不可少的,只是现代学校教育几乎涵盖孩子成长的全部内容,使得学校教育成为必然选择。


但每个个体生命首先源之于父母的遗传,而后又在各自家庭环境中成长,尽管随着学校教育成分的增加,其社会性的表征越发显著,但这社会性却是依赖于其个性所生存发展的,并且相同社会性表象下的个体差异仍是天然存在的。


所以,我们要不断提高教育设计与考试评价的科学性,促进学生全面而有个性的成长。


(文章来源:上海高招发布)



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